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Sri Ratha-yatra (Chariot festival of Lord Jagannatha)

We previously discussed Ratha-yatra, the Chariot festival held in Jagannatha Puri and how Lord Jagannatha goes from His temple to Gundicha. He is going from Niladri to Sundrachala.

In this pastime, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu modified this mood. Actually now, Krishna is going from Kurukshetra to Vrindavana, and this is the highest mood of Lord Chaitanya. Mahaprabhu is dancing and singing in front of Lord Jagannatha after a long separation. Meaning, now Srimati Radhika is meeting with Her beloved Krishna.

After a long conversation with Krishna, Srimati Radhika takes Him from Kurukshetra to Vrindavana. When Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was in this mood, Svarupa Damodara accordingly recited one verse:

sei ta parāṇa-nātha pāinu yāhā lāgi’ madana-dahane jhuri’ genu

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.113)

[“Now I have gained the Lord of My life, in the absence of whom I was being burned by Cupid and was withering away.”]

“After a long separation, I have now received My beloved Govinda, now My heart is completely intoxicated with madana, transcendental lust,” Svarupa Damodara, recited this verse again and again. Then Chaitanya Mahaprabhu became completely absorbed in an ecstatic mood:

ei dhuyā uccaiḥ-svare gāya dāmodara

ānande madhura nṛtya karena īśvara

dhīre dhīre jagannātha karena gamana

āge nṛtya kari' calena śacīra nandana

jagannāthe netra diyā sabe nāce, gāya

kīrtanīyā saha prabhu pāche pāche yāya

jagannāthe magna prabhura nayana-hṛdaya

śrī-hasta-yuge kare gītera abhinaya

gaura yadi pāche cale, śyāma haya sthire

gaura āge cale, śyāma cale dhīre-dhīre

ei-mata gaura-śyāme, doṅhe ṭhelāṭheli

svarathe śyāmere rākhe gaura mahā-balī

nācite nācite prabhura hailā bhāvāntara

hasta tuli' śloka paḍe kari' uccaiḥ-svara

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.114-120)

[When this refrain was loudly sung by Svarupa Damodara, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu again began rhythmically dancing in transcendental bliss. The car of Lord Jagannatha began to move slowly while the son of mother Saci went ahead and danced in front. While dancing and singing, all the devotees in front of Lord Jagannatha kept their eyes on Him. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu then went to the end of the procession with the sankirtana performers. His eyes and mind fully absorbed in Lord Jagannatha, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu began to play the drama of the song with His two arms. When Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was dramatically enacting the song, He would sometimes fall behind in the procession. At such times, Lord Jagannatha would come to a standstill. When Chaitanya Mahaprabhu again went forward, Lord Jagannatha’s car would slowly start again. Thus there was a sort of competition between Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Lord Jagannatha in seeing who would lead, but Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was so strong that He made Lord Jagannatha wait in His car. While Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was dancing, His ecstasy changed. Raising His two arms, He began to recite the following verse in a loud voice.]

In this way, Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was dancing in front of Lord Jagannatha, and the chariot of Lord Jagannatha very smoothly moved on. And all of the singers and kirtaniyas were following Him while also dancing and singing:

jagannāthe magna prabhura nayana-hṛdaya

śrī-hasta-yuge kare gītera abhinaya

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.117)

[His eyes and mind fully absorbed in Lord Jagannatha, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu began to play the drama of the song with His two arms.]

Sometimes, Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu would raise His hands, and began acting as if in a drama with His arms. Through many songs, the Lord explained the sentiments from the inner core of His heart. In this way Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu pulled the chariot of Lord Jagannatha.

In some moments, Mahaprabhu went to the back side of the chariot, and then Lord Jagannatha's chariot would completely stop. And the chariot began to move again only when Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu came in front of Lord Jagannatha. Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami very nicely describes:

ei-mata gaura-śyāme, doṅhe ṭhelāṭheli

svarathe śyāmere rākhe gaura mahā-balī

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.119)

[Thus, there was a sort of competition between Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Lord Jagannatha in seeing who would lead, but Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was so strong that He made Lord Jagannatha wait in His car.]

In this way, Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabu pulled the ropes of the chariot of Lord Jagannatha. The actual meaning is that Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is thinking “I am Radha, and now Krishna is going from Kurukshetra to Vrindavana. But only after My request? Or He is going with My prema?” For this reason, sometimes Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, went to the back of the chariot, and as mentioned, Jagannatha's chariot would completely stop. When Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu came in front of Lord Jagannatha, His chariot would start to move.

The meaning here is that Srimati Radhika is thinking, “Krishna is going to Vrindavana. But is He going only because of My request or is He going because of Our love?" This is because doing something out of love or because of a request are two different things. For this reason, Srimati Radhika as Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, is testing Krishna, as She doubts, “Is Lord Jagannatha going only due to My request or because of My love?"

In this nice way, Gaura and Shyama or Srimati Radhika and Krishna are beautifully exchanging Their love and affection.

Nācite nācite prabhura hailā bhāvāntara. Then, Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was chanting and dancing, when suddenly His mood completely changed. And Mahaprabhu raised His two hands and recited one verse from kavya-prakasha Sahitya-darpana, which was to some, a seemingly mundane shloka:

yaḥ kaumāra-haraḥ sa eva hi varas tā eva caitra-kṣapās

te conmīlita-mālatī-surabhayaḥ prauḍhāḥ kadambānilāḥ

sā caivāsmi tathāpi tatra surata-vyāpāra-līlā-vidhau

revā-rodhasi vetasī-taru-tale cetaḥ samutkaṇṭhate

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.121)

[“That very personality who stole away my heart during my youth is now again my master. These are the same moonlit nights of the month of Chaitra. The same fragrance of malati flowers is there, and the same sweet breezes are blowing from the kadamba forest. In our intimate relationship, I am also the same lover, yet still my mind is not happy here. I am eager to go back to that place on the bank of the Reva under the Vetasi tree. That is my desire.”]

The purport of this shloka is: a married woman, after her marriage ceremony, when she returned back from her father-in-law's house to her own father's house, was asked by her girlfriends about how it felt to stay with her new husband in the house of her father-in-law. The bride explained that before marrying, in a hidden way, she would meet with her beloved - ‘yaḥ kaumāra-haraḥ sa eva hi varas tā eva caitra-kṣapās’.

And previously, when not yet husband and wife, but still lover and beloved, they were meeting together on the bank of the river, in a very nice and beautiful place during the month of Chaitra, near the end of March/beginning of April—called vasanta-kala, spring season. And during this time, the weather is not hot and it is also not cold. And the nights were also very sweet and nice.

Especially during a full moon, everything everywhere would become completely illuminated by the rays of the moon. The lovers would stay in a very nice and confidential place, called Vetasi-kunja. And a sweet breeze emanated from the kadamba blossom flowers and some pleasing fragrances came from the gardens of madhavi and malati.

At the time, the lovers were completely absorbed with each other while engaging in their mundane sexual activities. However, after a few years of married life, the wife is now thinking, "I am not happy in my marriage, vivaha-jivana. I want to return." By this she actually meant, “My mind is very eager to return to my previous life, parakiya life.” Except, how can one do this?

Thus, when Chaitanya Mahaprabhu recited this verse repeatedly, everyone’s minds became completely disturbed. Because Mahaprabhu is called the crown jewels of all sannyasis, and He never spoke about these sort of mundane topics. Why did He recite this verse again and again?

No one there knew the heart of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu except Sri Svarupa Damodara. For this reason, Svarupa Damodara began repeating this verse:

sei ta parāṇa-nātha pāinu yāhā lāgi’ madana-dahane jhuri’ genu

[“I have gotten that Lord of My life, for whom I was burning in the fire of lusty desires.”]

That year, Srila Rupa Gosvamipada also realised the heart of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. And then Rupa Gosvami composed ten shlokas parallel to the mood of Kurukshetra. Especially the mood when Krishna meets with Srimati Radhika, and Srimati Radhika expresses Her heart:

priyaḥ so ’yaṁ kṛṣṇaḥ saha-cari kuru-kṣetra-militas

tathāhaṁ sā rādhā tad idam ubhayoḥ saṅgama-sukham

tathāpy antaḥ-khelan-madhura-muralī-pañcama-juṣe

mano me kālindī-pulina-vipināya spṛhayati

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Antya-lila 1.79)

[“My dear friend, now I have met My very old and dear friend Krishna on this field of Kurukshetra. I am the same Radharani, and now We are meeting together. It is very pleasant, but I would still like to go to the bank of the Yamuna beneath the trees of the forest there. I wish to hear the vibration of His sweet flute playing the fifth note within that forest of Vrindavana.”]

Rupa Gosvamipada wrote this verse. Srimati Radhika is saying in it, “Priyaḥ so ’yaṁ’ - I am the same Radha, and My beloved Krishna is the same. And now We are both meeting together in Kurukshetra. ‘Tathāhaṁ sā rādhā tad idam ubhayoḥ saṅgama-sukham - but, We are meeting together, and not the same happiness coming in Our hearts. Why? Because here there is a completely different atmosphere. Here, it is Kurukshetra, a place of opulence. And Vrindavana is a place of sweetness, madhurya-dhama.

śrī-rādhikā kurukṣetre kṛṣṇera daraśana

yadyapi pāyena, tabu bhāvena aichana

rāja-veśa, hātī, ghoḍā, manuṣya gahana

kāhāṅ gopa-veśa, kāhāṅ nirjana vṛndāvana

sei bhāva, sei kṛṣṇa, sei vṛndāvana

yabe pāi, tabe haya vāñchita pūraṇa

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 1.78-80)

[The subject of His thoughts was Srimati Radharani, who met Krishna on the field of Kurukshetra. Although She met Krishna there, She was nonetheless thinking of Him in the following way. She thought of Him in the calm and quiet atmosphere of Vrindavana, dressed as a cowherd boy. But at Kurukshetra He was in a royal dress and was accompanied by elephants, horses and crowds of men. Thus the atmosphere was not congenial for Their meeting. Thus meeting with Krishna and thinking of the Vrindavana atmosphere, Radharani longed for Krishna to take Her to Vrindavana again to fulfil Her desire in that calm atmosphere.]

Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami explained also that Kurukshetra is full of opulence, and there, Krishna's form is called raja-vesha. His form is that of a king. He wears a crown on His head, and there are so many elephants and horses surrounding which are making too many sounds. And many opulent people are always coming and going, and they are always paying their respects to Krishna. However, in Vrindavana - kāhāṅ gopa-veśa, kāhāṅ nirjana vṛndāvana - Vrindavana is completely different. Vraja Krishna's form is that of an ordinary cowherd boy, gopa-vesha. Also, Vrindavana is calm, quiet and solitary. In this verse, Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami again explained:

aveśeṣe rādhā kṛṣṇe kare nivedana

sei tumi, sei āmi, sei nava saṅgama

tathāpi āmāra mana hare vṛndāvana

vṛndāvane udaya karāo āpana-caraṇa

ihāṅ lokāraṇya, hātī, ghoḍā, ratha-dhvani

tāhāṅ puṣpāraṇya, bhṛṅga-pika-nāda śuni

ihāṅ rāja-veśa, saṅge saba kṣatriya-gaṇa

tāhāṅ gopa-veśa, saṅge muralī-vādana

vraje tomāra saṅge yei sukha-āsvādana

sei sukha-samudrera ihāṅ nāhi eka kaṇa

āmā lañā punaḥ līlā karaha vṛndāvane

tabe āmāra mano-vāñchā haya ta' pūraṇe

bhāgavate āche yaiche rādhikā-vacana

pūrve tāhā sūtra-madhye kariyāchi varṇana

sei bhāvāveśe prabhu paḍe āra śloka

sei saba ślokera artha nāhi bujhe loka

svarūpa-gosāñi jāne, nā kahe artha tāra

śrī-rūpa-gosāñi kaila se artha pracāra

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.126-134)

[Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu spoke thus to Lord Jagannatha, “You are the same Krishna, and I am the same Radharani. We are meeting again in the same way that We met in the beginning of Our lives. Although We are both the same, My mind is still attracted to Vrindavana-dhama. I wish that You will please again appear with Your lotus feet in Vrindavana. In Kurukshetra there are crowds of people, elephants and horses, and also the rattling of chariots. But in Vrindavana there are flower gardens, and the humming of the bees and chirping of the birds can be heard. Here at Kurukshetra You are dressed like a royal prince, accompanied by great warriors, but in Vrindavana You appeared just like an ordinary cowherd boy, accompanied only by Your beautiful flute. Here there is not even a drop of the ocean of transcendental happiness that I enjoyed with You in Vrindavana. I therefore request You to come to Vrindavana and enjoy pastimes with Me. If You do so, My ambition will be fulfilled". I have already described in brief Srimati Radharani’s statement from Srimad-Bhagavatam. In that ecstatic mood, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu recited many other verses, but people in general could not understand their meaning. The meaning of those verses was known to Svarupa Damodara Gosvami, but he did not reveal it. However, Sri Rupa Gosvami has broadcast the meaning.]

Here, Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami explains that Srimati Radhika is expressing Her heart by saying, “O Krishna, please manifest Your lotus feet in Vrndavana.” And this is because Kurukshetra is known as a place of opulence. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Prabhupada, in his purport, very clearly explained that those who are the devotees of madhurya are not happy in places of opulence. When there, they want to leave and return to Vrindavana because Vrindavana is known as the place of sweetness— madhurya-dhama Vrindavana.

Vrindavana is full of sweetness, madhurya-pusparanya. Everywhere, everything is so nice. There are always beautiful blossomed flowers. And peacocks and pheasants are always singing very nicely. They, along with cuckoo birds and other animals, create an atmosphere that enchants everyone there. And there, Krishna's form is also completely different.

In Kurukshetra, Krishna is raja-vesha, He wears royal outfits and all of His associates are kshatriyas. However, in Vrindavana, He is gopa-vesha, and Krishna's form is that of an ordinary cowherd boy and He plays the flute, murali-vadana. And Srimati Radhika is saying, “O Krishna, please come to Vrindavana.” In this way, Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu manifested these feelings from the inner core of His heart:

svarūpa saṅge yāra artha kare āsvādana

nṛtya-madhye sei śloka karena paṭhana

āhuś ca te nalina-nābha padāravindaṁ

yogeśvarair hṛdi vicintyam agādha-bodhaiḥ


gehaṁ juṣām api manasy udiyāt sadā naḥ

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.135-136)

[While dancing, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu began to recite the following verse, which He tasted in the association of Svarupa Damodara Gosvami. “[The gopis spoke thus:] ‘Dear Lord, whose navel is just like a lotus flower, Your lotus feet are the only shelter for those who have fallen into the deep well of material existence. Your feet are worshipped and meditated upon by great mystic yogis and highly learned philosophers. We wish that these lotus feet may also be awakened within our hearts, although we are only ordinary persons engaged in household affairs.’ ”]

Krishna told the gopis, “Actually, why are you feeling separation from Me? Everybody knows I am Bhagavan and I reside everywhere.” Because Bhagavan, Ishvara, He resides everywhere. There is no separation from Him.

Krishna has given the example of clay and a claypot. You cannot separate clay from the claypot. In the same way, Krishna told the gopis, “Why are you feeling separation from Me? I am Paramatma. I am Supersoul. And Supersoul resides everywhere. In the same way, I am always staying with you. You just feel like I am not with you.”

mayi bhaktir hi bhūtānām

amṛtatvāya kalpate

diṣṭyā yad āsīn mat-sneho

bhavatīnāṁ mad-āpanaḥ

Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.82.44)

[Lord Sri Krishna said, “Devotional service unto Me is the only way to attain Me. My dear gopis, whatever love and affection you have attained for Me by good fortune is the only reason for My returning to you.’]

Krishna continued, “Mayi bhaktir hi bhūtānām amṛtatvāya kalpate’ - one who performs bhajana and sadhana to Me, will realise I am with them always, I am always staying with them, because I am Bhagavan. And now you have come to Kurukshetra because you have so much love and affection for Me. And you belong to Me. For this reason, you have come to Kurukshetra to meet with Me. But actually, I have never separated from you. I am always with you. It is only in your mind that you think I am not with you.”

When Krishna said these things, the gopis became very angry. Why? Because Krishna tried to establish in this verse that He is Bhagavan, Paramatma or Supersoul. Except the gopis do not believe that Krishna is Bhagavan or Supersoul. And for this reason the gopis became very upset and spoke this verse to Krishna:

āhuś ca te nalina-nābha padāravindaṁ

yogeśvarair hṛdi vicintyam agādha-bodhaiḥ


gehaṁ juṣām api manasy udiyāt sadā naḥ

The gopis, specifically Srimati Radhika, said, “O Krishna, You have to give these types of instructions to Brahma instead. Brahma is very intelligent—‘vicintyam agādha-bodhaiḥ’. Brahma has vast knowledge. So, you can give these types of instructions to him. We do not possess these types of knowledge.”

Gopis, with their vamya-bhava have actually explained that Brahma is less intelligent. Why? Because Brahmaji manifests from a lotus, and the lotus touches the mud.

yasya yat saṅgatih puṁso manivat syāt sa tad gunah

Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu (1.2.229)

[Just as a crystal reflects the colour of objects that are brought near it, a person’s nature will be exactly in accordance with the association he keeps.]

This means that Brahma manifested from a lotus, and the lotus was coming from the mud. So, Brahma’s association was mud, and for this reason, despite Brahma still being very intelligent, it is like mud— which is less intelligent.

Brahmaji meditated on Lord Narayana. Why? In order to get delivered from this material world. However, here in this verse, the gopis are saying, “We do not want to be delivered from this material world. We don't have these tendencies. ‘Saṁsāra-kūpa-patitottaraṇāvalambaṁ gehaṁ juṣām api manasy udiyāt sadā naḥ’ - But we also want that You always manifest Your lotus feet in Vrindavana.”

anyera hṛda ya-mana, mora mana-vṛndāvana,

'mane' 'vane' eka kari' jāni

tāhāṅ tomāra pada-dvaya, karāha yadi udaya,

tabe tomāra pūrṇa kṛpā māni

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.137)

[Speaking in the mood of Srimati Radharani, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said, "For most people, the mind and heart are one, but because My mind is never separated from Vrindavana, I consider My mind and Vrindavana to be one. My mind is already Vrindavana, and since You like Vrindavana, will You please place Your lotus feet there? I would deem that Your full mercy.”]

Srimati Radhika said, “O Krishna, please come to Vrindavana. My mind is non-different from Vrindavana. If You manifest Your lotus feet in Vrindavana, then I will receive Your mercy.”

prāṇa-nātha, śuna mora satya nivedana

vraja-āmāra sadana, tāhāṅ tomāra saṅgama,

nā pāile nā rahe jīvana

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.138)

[“My dear Lord, kindly hear My true submission. My home is Vrindavana, and I wish Your association there. But if I do not get it, then it will be very difficult for Me to keep My life.”]

Then, the gopis said, “O Krishna, please listen. Vraja is Your real home. And we want to associate with You. If you don't stay with us, how can we survive and maintain our lives?”

pūrve uddhava-dvāre, ebe sākṣāt āmāre,

yoga-jñāne kahilā upāya

tumi-vidagdha, kṛpāmaya, jānaha āmāra hṛdaya,

more aiche kahite nā yuyāya

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.139)

[“My dear Krishna, formerly, when You were staying in Mathura, You sent Uddhava to teach Me speculative knowledge and mystic yoga. Now, You Yourself are speaking the same thing, but My mind doesn't accept it. There is no place in My mind for jnana-yoga or dhyana-yoga. Although You know Me very well, You are still instructing Me in jnana-yoga and dhyana-yoga. It is not right for You to do so.”]

The gopis continued, “Previously, You sent a message to us from Uddhava. And now You are speaking this same message to us. What is this? ‘I am Bhagavan. I am staying everywhere as Paramatma. Because Paramatma and jivas never separate.’ And now, You are repeating the same katha. O Krishna, Your siddhanta is clever siddhanta. Kripamaya, You are very merciful!”

citta kāḍhi' tomā haite, viṣaye cāhi lāgāite,

yatna kari, nāri kāḍhibāre

tāre dhyāna śikṣā karāha, loka hāsāñā māra,

sthānāsthāna nā kara vicāre

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.140)

[“I would like to withdraw My consciousness from You and engage it in material activities, but even though I try, I cannot do so. I am naturally inclined to You only. Your instructions for Me to meditate on You are therefore simply ludicrous. In this way, You are killing Me. It is not very good for You to think of Me as a candidate for Your instructions.”]

nahe gopī yogeśvara, pada-kamala tomāra,

dhyāna kari' pāibe santoṣa

tomāra vākya-paripāṭī, tāra madhye kuṭināṭī,

śuni' gopīra āro bāḍhe roṣa

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.141)

[“The gopis are not like the mystic yogis. They will never be satisfied simply by meditating on Your lotus feet and imitating the so-called yogis. Teaching the gopis about meditation is another kind of duplicity. When they are instructed to undergo mystic yoga practice, they are not at all satisfied. On the contrary, they become more angry with You.”]

Rupa Gosvamipada explains that gopis’ love is called utkantha-mayi-prema. And that prema is explained as being very eager. Utkantha-mayi-prema means that they want to meet with Krishna directly. These types of gopis are not pleased by just sending Him a message. The gopis continue to explain:

deha-smṛti nāhi yāra, saṁsāra-kūpa kāhāṅ tāra,

tāhā haite nā cāhe uddhāra

viraha-samudra-jale, kāma-timiṅgile gile,

gopī-gaṇe neha' tāra pāra

Chaitanya-charitamrita (Madhya-lila 13.142)

[Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu continued, "The gopis are fallen in the great ocean of separation, and they are being devoured by the timingila fish, which represent their ambition to serve You. The gopis are to be delivered from the mouths of these timingila fish, for they are pure devotees. Since they have no material conception of life, why should they aspire for liberation? The gopis do not want that liberation desired by yogis and jnanis, for they are already liberated from the ocean of material existence.”]

The gopis said, "O Krishna, You are giving us this instruction on how to meditate? In our scriptures it says that those who are completely illusioned by maya, when given instructions to give up the relationship with the material and meditate on to the Lord, they can achieve happiness— that is the jnana-shiksha.” Yet, the gopis here are simply saying "We have no samsara-kupa, we do not have any bodily conceptions.”

Conditioned souls’ cause of bondage is their bodily conception, dehatma-buddhi. Conditioned souls have bondages: I am this body. But actually, I am the servant of Krishna - jīvera ‘svarūpa’ haya — kṛṣṇera ‘nitya-dāsa’. And this conception is not bondage. When you realise that you are the servant of Krishna, kṛṣṇera ‘nitya-dāsa’, then you will be freed from maya.

[Sri Ratha-yatra ki jaya!]

[Sri Jagannathadeva ki jaya!]

[Gaura Premanande! Hari Haribol!]

Date: 25 June 2020 Location: Zoom


Transcriber: Mohini dasi (UK) Editor: Sanatana dasa (USA) Proofreading: Chandrika dasi (UK) Integrity check: Divya-premamayi dasi (Slovakia), Sanatana dasa (USA) Image: Navina-krishna dasa (Holland)

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